Summary: A team of physicists and computer scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory performed one of the five largest cosmological simulations ever. Data from the simulation will inform sky maps to aid leading large-scale cosmological experiments.
Original author and publication date: Argonne National Laboratory – January 27, 2021
Futurizonte Editor’s Note: Why are we exploring the dark universe? And when will we explore our inner dark universe?
From the article:
The simulation, called the Last Journey, follows the distribution of mass across the universe over time — in other words, how gravity causes a mysterious invisible substance called “dark matter” to clump together to form larger-scale structures called halos, within which galaxies form and evolve.
“We’ve learned and adapted a lot during the lifespan of Mira, and this is an interesting opportunity to look back and look forward at the same time.” — Adrian Pope, Argonne physicist
The scientists performed the simulation on Argonne’s supercomputer Mira. The same team of scientists ran a previous cosmological simulation called the Outer Rim in 2013, just days after Mira turned on. After running simulations on the machine throughout its seven-year lifetime, the team marked Mira’s retirement with the Last Journey simulation.
The Last Journey demonstrates how far observational and computational technology has come in just seven years, and it will contribute data and insight to experiments such as the Stage-4 ground-based cosmic microwave background experiment (CMB-S4), the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (carried out by the Rubin Observatory in Chile), the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument and two NASA missions, the Roman Space Telescope and SPHEREx.
“We worked with a tremendous volume of the universe, and we were interested in large-scale structures, like regions of thousands or millions of galaxies, but we also considered dynamics at smaller scales,” said Katrin Heitmann, deputy division director for Argonne’s High Energy Physics (HEP) division.
The code that constructed the cosmos
The six-month span for the Last Journey simulation and major analysis tasks presented unique challenges for software development and workflow. The team adapted some of the same code used for the 2013 Outer Rim simulation with some significant updates to make efficient use of Mira, an IBM Blue Gene/Q system that was housed at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF), a DOE Office of Science User Facility.
Specifically, the scientists used the Hardware/Hybrid Accelerated Cosmology Code (HACC) and its analysis framework, CosmoTools, to enable incremental extraction of relevant information at the same time as the simulation was running.